The Role Of AMPA Receptors
According to the University of Bristol’s Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, “AMPA receptors are responsible for the bulk of excitatory synaptic transmission throughout the central nervous system, and their modulation is the ultimate mechanism that underlies much of the plasticity of excitatory transmission that is expressed in the brain.” What does that all mean? To understand how the AMPA receptors work, we first need to look at the components.
AMPA receptors, sometimes referred to as AMPARs, are found throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain. They work by acting on certain brain receptors, specifically, AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors. For starters, a synapse refers to the point of contact between neurons; this is where the information passes from one neuron to another. Excitatory synapses cause what is referred to as an action potential in a presynaptic neuron. In doing so, there is an increase in the probability of action occurring in a postsynaptic cell.
Why is an increase in excitatory synapses significant? When signals are sent across the excitatory synapse, the activity of receiving neurons increases. When this activity does not occur, or the signals are transmitted across inhibitory synapses, neuron activity is reduced.
Increased excitatory synapses are thought to support cognitive function by influencing the communication time between neurons in the central nervous system. Excitatory synapses in the central nervous system are glutamatergic and have been suspected of playing an essential role in neurodevelopment. The term “glutamatergic” indicates that the chemical directly influences glutamate/aspartate, an excitatory amino acid.
What Is Aniracetam?
Aniracetam is a type of nootropic, or substance that supports brain function.Nootropics may be synthetic or naturally occurring substances and are believed to encourage cognitive functions such as memory, creativity, and focus.
First discovered in Switzerland in the 1970s,this substance is classified as a racetam. Other popular racetams include:
Racetams are a nootropic class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus; this form of a nucleus is an organic compound that consists of a five-membered lactam. While there are many variations of racetams, only a few are considered to be of the nootropic variety. These compounds tend to show an affinity for more common central nervous system receptors.
Aniracetam is considered one of the best racetams in the racetam family of brain-enhancing smart drugs. In terms of Aniracetam supplements, this particular nootropic tends to affect acetylcholine receptors. In doing so, Aniracetam nootropics positively modulate the AMPA receptors found within our brains. Aniracetam may also be referred to by brand names such as Draganon, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan, Sarpul and by generic names such as 1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone.
Aniracetam has not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a prescription product, and the FDA does not regulate the sale of dietary supplements. However, the European Medicines Agency has approved this substance on its list of nationally authorized medical products, making it available for prescription in Europe.
Aniracetam Nootropics for Feelings of Depression
While there are many different applications of aniracetam for cognitive enhancement, one of the most popular ways to use it is for relieving feelings of sadness or depression. Aniracetam nootropics may positively affect the dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brainby supporting the turnover of serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters, which can lead to improved mood and sociability.
Researchers conducted a three-day trial in which rats were administered either a traditional antidepressant, a placebo or Aniracetam nootropics.  The rats varied in age from younger to older. Those treated with Aniracetam nootropics and put under stress saw more significant results. These results were also more prevalent in the older rats, where brain dysfunctions were more prevalent.
The study has important implications for older adults suffering from feelings of sadness and depression, but human research is needed in order to fully understand the efficacy of this substance for this purpose.
You should speak to your doctor before using aniracetam in combination with treatments for depression, especially if you are currently taking SSRIs or SNRIs.
Aniracetam Nootropics for Feelings of Anxiety
This nootropic can also be used to address feelings of anxiety. While more studies in humans are needed to fully understand the applications of aniracetam for feelings of stress, it is thought to ease feelings of anxiety in the same way it can ease feelings of depression: by influencing neurotransmitters in the brain.
Aniracetam Nootropics for Attention and Focus
People who have difficulty focusing may also benefit from using this nootropic.
A 2016 study examined aniracetam as a non-pharmacological treatment for children with attention issues.  Unlike the comparison drug, which was known to cause side effects such as weight loss, anxiety, increased heart rate, incontinence, and sexual dysfunction, aniracetam was found to support focus without these side effects when taken at a dose of 750 mg twice per day.
More studies on a large scale are needed to confirm the benefits of aniracetam for focus, but early results are promising. Because it acts similarly to prescription treatments for attention issues, you should speak to your doctor before taking it.
Aniracetam Nootropics for Cognitive Function
In addition to supporting a balanced mood and encouraging focus, aniracetam is also thought to support cognitive function in general, including memory and concentration. If you struggle with recalling events or details or have difficulty concentrating at work or at school, aniracetam supplementation may be able to help. “It may also offer benefits that support and enhance creativity, focus, and other types of executive function,” highlights Johannah Gregg, Certified Family Nurse Practitioner and Peptide Therapy Specialist.
The Effect of Aniracetam Supplements on Cognitive Decline
The two most common conditions noted as cognitive decline include dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, Aniracetam supplements have been studied as a possible mitigator of these conditions. 
In elderly patients that suffered moderate brain pathology, Aniracetam nootropics have been tested as a possible treatment. In one study, researchers administered 1500mg of Aniracetam supplements daily to roughly 30 participants while the other 30 were given a placebo. The trial ran for four months, and those on the aniracetam nootropic treatment at the two and four-month check-in saw marked improvements.
Although the studies thus far have been small, results indicate that patients experiencing mild to moderate symptoms associated with age-related cognitive decline may be able to support cognitive function with aniracetam. However, additional human studies on a larger scale are needed to confirm these benefits.
Aniracetam Benefits: What Does Aniracetam Do?
Some studies support Aniracetam’s ability to improve several areas of the mind. For example, researchers have noted Aniracetam benefits for the frontal cortex, such as the ability to improve comprehension and enhance memory and focus. Another little-known fact is that Aniracetam can repair damage commonly associated with drug and alcohol use. In addition to these positive attributes, researchers studying Aniracetam use have reported decreased anxiety and depression and increased creativity. When you buy Aniracetam for sale from Paradigm Peptides, general benefits may include the following:
- Improved comprehension
- Enhanced memory and focus
- Decreased anxiety
- Lessened depression
- Increased creativity
Note:Aniracetam nootropics can be stacked with other nootropics, such as noopept, for enhanced benefits in memory, anxiety and mood elevation. However, it is important to speak to your doctor before combining aniracetam with prescription treatments.
Possible Aniracetam Side Effects
Most people tolerate aniracetam well, but of course, researchers have also noted some possible Aniracetam side effects associated with the smart drug. Nausea, vomiting, headaches, irritability, jitteriness and insomnia may occur when first starting treatment with Aniracetam nootropics.
These side effects typically resolve over time as your body becomes more accustomed to using the supplement. Also, please note that pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant should not take Aniracetam capsules as it may negatively affect the unborn child.
It is also recommended that you talk to your healthcare provider prior to using this substance in children or adults. Although uncommon, it is also possible to have a severe allergic reaction to it. Do not take the supplement if you have had a previous allergic reaction to aniracetam or any of its components.
Aniracetam is not known to have any significant medication interactions. However, because it can influence hippocampal chemicals within the brain, it may have interactions with medications that also work on your brain chemistry, such as Adderall, diphenhydramine for allergies, antidepressants, and oxybutynin. Aniracetam may also interact with medications used to treat blood pressure.
Aniracetam Dosage Information: How Much Aniracetam To Take Daily
The Aniracetam dosage a person intends to take relies heavily on the intended benefits they’d like to achieve. A lower Aniracetam dose borders on the line of 600 mg per day, whereas higher Aniracetam doses are commonly around 1500 mg per day. A dose of 1500 mg per day may help support cognitive function, memory, and mood in older adults with cognitive decline.
If you are working to treat senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (SDAT), then an Aniracetam dose between 1000 mg and 1500 mg is the most common for this condition. A dose of 750 mg taken twice per day may be effective in addressing learning or language problems associated with a lack of focus.
The secondary variation of Aniracetam dosing is between 600 mg and 1500 mg per day. These doses are typical among those using Aniracetam nootropics as a treatment for memory disorders. The third variation of Aniracetam dosing is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety, which is 600 mg per day, taken in 200 mg capsules three times daily.
Buy Aniracetam Nootropics At Paradigm Peptides Today
If you’re looking to buy Aniracetam online, look to the nootropics experts at Paradigm Peptides. At Paradigm Peptides, we carry pharmaceutical-grade Aniracetam for sale at the highest purity standards. In addition to Aniracetam supplements, we carry an extensive selection of nootropics for sale in varieties of all types. If you want to learn more about nootropics, feel free to check out our blog for more information, like the best nootropics for energy and the best nootropic stacks on the market. If you have any questions, feel free to email us at [email protected].
*Disclaimer: The Aniracetam for sale on this site is sold for research use only. Not for human consumption. This product is not a drug, supplement, food or cosmetic, and it may not be misused, sold, labeled or branded as such. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any condition or disease.
- Nakamura, K., & Tanaka, Y. (2001). Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action. Psychopharmacology, 158(2), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130100849
- Koliaki, C. C., Messini, C., & Tsolaki, M. (2012). Clinical efficacy of aniracetam, either as monotherapy or combined with cholinesterase inhibitors, in patients with cognitive impairment: a comparative open study. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics, 18(4), 302–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2010.00244.x
- Sharma, A., Gerbarg, P. L., & Brown, R. P. (2015). Non-Pharmacological Treatments for ADHD in Youth. Adolescent psychiatry (Hilversum, Netherlands), 5(2), 84–95. https://doi.org/10.2174/221067660502150430154937
- Cumin, R., Bandle, E.F., Gamzu, E. et al. Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents. Psychopharmacology 78, 104–111 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00432244
- Shirane, M., & Nakamura, K. (2001). Aniracetam enhances cortical dopamine and serotonin release via cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms in SHRSP. Brain research, 916(1-2), 211–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(01)02939-0